Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields and Climate Change

March 17, ] Contents Artiodactyls cloven-hoofed animals “The early evolution of the artiodactyls is fairly well documented by both the dentition and the skeletal material and provides the basis for fairly detailed analysis of evolutionary patterns Has many tooth features linking it to later Diacodexis; but in all other ways, including the legs, it was an unspecialized condylarth. No artiodactyl fossils known from the late Paleocene. Similar late Paleocene gaps in rodents, lagomorphs, and perissodactyls are currently being filled with newly discovered Asian fossils, so apparently much late Paleocene herbivore evolution occurred in central Asia. Perhaps the new Asian expeditions will find Paleocene artiodactyl fossils too. Diacodexis early Eocene — A rabbit-sized with longer limbs than the condylarths.

How Old is the Earth

List of places with columnar basalt During the cooling of a thick lava flow, contractional joints or fractures form. While a flow can shrink in the vertical dimension without fracturing, it can’t easily accommodate shrinking in the horizontal direction unless cracks form; the extensive fracture network that develops results in the formation of columns.

The topology of the lateral shapes of these columns can broadly be classed as a random cellular network. These structures are predominantly hexagonal in cross-section, but polygons with three to twelve or more sides can be observed. Submarine eruptions Pillow basalts on the south Pacific seafloor Outcrop of a pillow basalt, Italy Pillow basalts Main article:

Pleistocene Epoch: Pleistocene Epoch, earlier and major of the two epochs that constitute the Quaternary Period of the Earth’s history, and the time period during which a succession of glacial and interglacial climatic cycles occurred. It ended 11, years ago and is preceded by the Pliocene Epoch and followed by the Holocene Epoch.

If a layer, say 0. Considering that good satellite data on meteoritic influx were available before Morris 92 and Slusher published their papers, they obviously have been highly selective in their choice of obsolete data. A more fundamental point, however, is that such calculations are based on faulty premises, including the erroneous assumptions that the meteoritic influx has remained constant for 4. Apparently, Morris and Parker 97 have credited Slusher with a calculation that he did not do.

Table 10 , no. Morris 92 notes that intrusive rocks are much more common than lava flows: Thus, the entire crust could have been formed by volcanic activity at present rates in only million years, which would only take us back into the Cambrian period. The uniformitarian model once again leads to a serious problem and contradiction. Consequently the maximum age of the atmosphere, assuming no original helium in the atmosphere, would be As a matter of fact, Henry Faul Faul, has cited evidence that the rate of efflux of helium into the atmosphere … is about times greater than the value used by Cook.

This in turn would reduce the age of the atmosphere down to several thousand years!

Cambrian Period

Image courtesy of Gary L. Kinsland – from Kinsland et al. Age of the chicxulub impact and mass extinction, brazos river, texas, USA. Paper presented at the , 43 5

Is Earth Dating Correct? Before we examine a YE model it is essential to summarize standard dating methods. A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of conventional radiometric dating (which yields billions of years for the age of the earth) is given at Dating the Earth.A few of the non-conventional dating ‘clocks’ (which invariably point to a young earth) are also discussed.

Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago.

It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.

If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking. One must get past the arguments ad populum that its popularity counts for something , ad hominem that if you attack the person making the argument, this counts for something , and especially ad baculum that there are people who have the clout to decree it as true , to ask the key questions and challenge the unsubstantiated assumptions and thinking of those who would hold to the evolution position.

Today there are an increasing number of anti-creationist authors who are producing books and periodicals that make this relatively brief presentation insufficient to deal with all the points in dispute. Those defending creation today who don’t have the time to devote their life’s study to gaining expertise in all fields of inquiry must principally be prepared to think critically, logically, and challenge unsubstantiated assumptions made by these people.

They must also keep a level head in the face of some vicious attacks and diatribes that will be directed against them, as is advised in the scriptures 1 Peter 3: By way of definitions, I want to point out that when I speak of “evolution,” I am referring to the popular contemporary use of the word, which in a nutshell is the belief that all life forms are related by ancestry, and that the first life form occurred spontaneously, all due to completely natural processes.

When I speak of “creation,” I am referring to the inherently obvious fact that the origin of all life forms can be attributed to a creator who purposefully created them with planning and intent, and the documented fact that this occurred over the course of a week’s time several thousand years ago. This document is not a scientific thesis, but an apologetic intended to be submitted and defended by me in an interactive, online electronic forum.

Online Journal for E&P Geoscientists

Adapted here for online presentation; included are the maps in time-lapse sequence, which require downloading for economy of online time. For references, please refer to Memoir 43, p. The Western Tethys realm embraces the Mediterranean Sea, its Alpine fold belts, and the adjacent cratonic areas.

Rock, in geology, naturally occurring and coherent aggregate of one or more minerals. Such aggregates constitute the basic unit of which the solid Earth is comprised and typically form recognizable and mappable volumes. Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation. These classes are (1) igneous rocks, which have solidified from.

Mode 3 technologies and the evolution of modern humans. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 7 1: While the archaeological record has been used to support or refute various aspects of the theories, and to provide a behavioural framework for different biological models, there has been little attempt to employ the evidence of stone tool technology to unravel phylogenetic relationships. Here we examine the evidence that the evolution of modern humans is integrally related to the development of the Upper Palaeolithic and similar technologies, and conclude that there is only a weak relationship.

The implications of this for the evolution of Neanderthals, the multiple pattern of human dispersals, and the nature of cognitive evolution, are considered. The last fifteen years have seen an intense debate over the origins and evolution of anatomically and behaviourally modern humans. The Multiregional Model MM interprets the palaeontological evidence as indicating the gradual evolution of modern humans over a period of one to two million years.

Pleistocene Epoch

There is a flourishing of Oldowan tools in eastern Africa, spreading to southern Africa, between 2. Both technologies are occasionally found in the same areas, dating to the same time periods. This realisation required a rethinking of old cultural sequences in which the more “advanced” Acheulean was supposed to have succeeded the Oldowan. The different traditions may have been used by different species of hominins living in the same area, or multiple techniques may have been used by an individual species in response to different circumstances.

The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in early tools were simple, usually made with one or a few flakes chipped off with another stone. Oldowan tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic period, million years ago up until million years ago, by ancient hominids (early humans) across much of Africa, South Asia.

Potential of abundant, environmentally harmless energy technology , which already exists My strategy for manifesting that energy event for humanity’s and the planet’s benefit. I w as born in In that same year, I had my cultural and mystical awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a paranormal event changed my studies from science to business.

I s till held my energy dreams, however, and in , eight years after that first paranormal event, I had a second one that suddenly caused me to move up the coast from Los Angeles to Seattle, where I landed in the middle of what is arguably the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace. That effort was killed by the local electric industry , which saw our technology as a threat to its revenues and profits, and my wild ride began.

The owner of the Seattle business left the state to rebuild his effort. I followed him to Boston and soon became his partner. M y partner’s experiences in Seattle radicalized him. My use of “radical” intends to convey the original ” going to the root ” meaning. Radicals seek a fundamental understanding of events so they aim for the root and do not hack at branches , but more economically than politically in my partner’s instance.

Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth

Creationist Geologic Time Scale: Should the scientific community continue to fight rear-guard skirmishes with creationists, or insist that “young-earthers” defend their model in toto? Introduction This manuscript proposes a new approach for science’s battle against the rising influence in America of pseudo-science and the Creationist movement. The framework of Creationist Bible-based earth history, focusing on Genesis and the Noachian flood, can be assembled into a single geologic time scale Figure 1 , enlarged by addition of many geologic facts, difficult for Creationists to explain.

Figure 1 is an abbreviated version of the time scale outlined in the following paragraph which was redrawn and published by the American Scientist. Some of the items are so absurd that all but the most dedicated fundamentalists will see the overall picture as scientific nonsense, even bordering on humor, a most rare commodity in Creationist literature.

Volume 64, No. 4 posted Sep Methods relieving comparison of living and death assemblages Johann Hohenegger, Maria Virgínia Alves Martins, and Fabrizio Frontalini – online 26 Sep A new species of Idiognathoides (conodont) in the Lower Pennsylvanian Ladrones Limestone of the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska, and its paleogeographic significance.

They believe OE theory and in the claimed processes of evolution, but maintain that the initial matter and scientific laws were brought into existence by God Gen 8. They would also take a figurative non-literal interpretation of the Genesis account of creation. On this definition a theistic evolutionist could also be described as a creationist simply because they believe God created all things.

But the usual assumption of Creationism is also that no macro-evolution is involved, and so all living organisms were created substantially as they now exist, although it is accepted that small changes micro-evolution within created ‘kinds’ Gen 1. On this definition it is not necessary to assume an old earth and Young Earth YE Creationism is the belief that the universe and the Earth are just 6, to 10, years old as inferred from a literal interpretation of the Old Testament.

There are several key organisations working in Creation Science e. The following also provide scientific support for the YE theory: The western media, particularly in Europe, strongly promotes Darwinian evolution and an old earth. The secular scientific community does likewise e. On the other hand, there is also a growing number of professional, peer reviewed well published scientists who favour YE Creationism. So despite heavy lobbying, the layman like many in the scientific community remains unconvinced.

But has the layman studied the subject sufficiently to defend his or her doubt?

The extinction of the dinosaurs

A few days later, retired Apollo astronaut Phil Chapman sent me this article which lays some of the doubts to rest. Phil never got to fly in space but was mission Scientist on Apollo It is not every day I get the opportunity to publish an article from such a pre-eminent scientist. Sunspots and GCRs There is absolutely no doubt that solar activity via the solar wind directly affects the flux of galactic cosmic rays GCRs reaching the Earth.

Note that the scale for GCRs is inverted, increasing downward, to facilitate comparison with the sunspot record; that the major time division is 11 years, to illustrate the well- known approximate periodicity of the sunspot cycle; and that the GCR minimum usually lags the sunspot maximum by a year or two.

By definition, basalt is an aphanitic (fine-grained) igneous rock with generally 45–53% silica (SiO 2) and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume, and where at least 65% of the rock is feldspar in the form of is as per definition of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) classification scheme. It is the most common volcanic rock type on Earth, being a key.

Manicouagan crater, Quebec, Canada is visible in the background. Exhumed paleoplains of the Precambrian shield of North America. American Journal of Science, , — The viscous flow behavior of diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: A Comparitive study on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada. Diaplectic glass and fusion-formed glass: Comparative studies on shocked anorthosite from Manicouagan crater, Canada. Diaplectic labradorite glass from the Manicouagan impact crater. Physical properties, crystallization, structural and genetic implications.

Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 8, —

Paleomagnetism